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Ten aspects about vision in childhood

Ten aspects about vision in childhood

Vision is the main sense to incorporate new knowledge. It is clear that vision has to be good to facilitate the entire learning process from childhood. Below are ten concepts during the student stage:

  • Visual acuity, refractive errors and visual process

At the beginning of primary school, the visual system is forming and refractive errors may appear, which are alterations in the optical power of the eyeballs, that is, the “magnification” that the eyes need to achieve sharp images. In the retina, the neurochemical process of vision begins, which will subsequently continue in the brain through the optic nerve. Myopia, astigmatism and hyperopia will manifest themselves, to a greater or lesser degree, through blurred vision, which will obviously affect learning ability.

  • Importance of school visual control

Control is essential to know if you are in a position to begin this stage of visual and intellectual development or if you need any help. Glasses remain the fundamental therapeutic option and must be prescribed by an ophthalmologist.

  • Optical corrections and amblyopia

If the necessary optical corrections are not used, the visual system at the brain level will have insufficient development and, many times, in adulthood, despite using the necessary magnification, full visual capacity will never be available. To date, there is no therapeutic option to recover vision in adulthood. It is called amblyopia when, despite having the necessary magnification, it is not possible to develop all of the expected vision.

It is the visual phenomenon through which it is seen in three dimensions. It occurs because each eye projects two images of what is being seen in the brain, but in slightly different positions in space, although they merge to construct depth vision. In the case of a person with a large difference in vision between one eye and the other, there will be two images that can never be merged and what ends up happening is that the deficient one is suppressed.

  • Visual field in childhood

It is the perception of visual information from the sides when looking ahead. It is a fundamental visual function, which helps, for example, to locate the body when crossing a door, going down a staircase, crossing a corner and perceiving if cars are coming, among others. It is essential when practicing sports. Again, if one of the two eyes is malfunctioning, peripheral vision may decrease.

It occurs because in the retina there are cells called cones, which capture the different wavelengths of light and create a very wide range of hues. Many defects in color perception are detected in childhood, since the most frequent are hereditary, although it can also occur in people with alterations in the optic nerve. The best known is called color blindness, which is a change in perception.

In this alteration, the eyes are not aligned, each one captures different images and the brain cannot fuse them. Therefore, you will have to choose one, leaving aside the other eye. The “unused” eye will not develop its visual information pathway and its representation at the brain level, leading to amblyopia if the case is not treated in childhood. Sometimes, there is “alternation” in ocular deviation and the brain uses one eye or the other, decreasing the possibility of amblyopia.

  • Use of screens in childhood

By spending a lot of time in front of the screen, the brain prioritizes that focus of vision and forces the eyes to keep nearby images sharp. In childhood (and not in adults), the eyeball is developing and, in these cases, axial length increases. That is, the eye becomes more elongated and it helps the close image to be well focused on the retina, but it becomes more difficult to see from a distance, that is, from 2 meters away. It is recommended to alternate near and far vision activities, limit screen time, and increase outdoor exposure.

  • And what about light from screens and natural light in childhood?

Clear data have been found that suggest that natural light could also exert a protective factor for the development of myopia and, conversely, the bluish light from screens, exacerbate it. Although this is not new, already in the last 3 decades of the 20th century, the importance of large windows in schools began to be emphasized.

  • Screens at the end of the day

When used at night, bluish light alters the circadian rhythm, which is the cycle that governs the organic activities of sleep and wakefulness. The body has a “sensor” located in the head, the pineal gland, mainly responsible for the secretion of melatonin, usually at night. This will prepare many important events in the body during rest, but light, and especially bluish light, inhibits its release and affects the physiological process of sleep.

Ophthalmologist, head of corneal transplantation, refractive surgery and cataracts, at Clínica Nano.

Source: Ambito

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